[vc_row thb_divider_position=»bottom»][vc_column][vc_column_text]Article helps the reader to track the moment of origin of a social stereotype at the macro, meso and micro levels. The author gives widespread beliefs and points to their negative nature limiting perception of life of each person.
«The thought begins where we
We encounter an obstacle».
(L. S. Vygodsky)
The social device of human race has enough markers which unconditional influence, turns an animal — «mauglioides» (3) which we are actually, in the person, in habitual understanding of this word. In other words, our «humanity» is a product of cultural training or regular education and training.
The neurophysiology illustrated it on the example of a brain of the newborn long ago: when the child is born, in his brain the huge number of nervous communications between cages is concentrated, and neurons are still connected with each other absolutely chaotically. This fact demonstrates that the human individual is born without any intellectual contents, speaking to Aristotle Tabula rasa’s language or a pure plate for the letter. (Aristotle. About soul)
Therefore, resources of human knowledge are caused: culture, education, training and experience, on means of the socializing factors the brain of the child acquires the unique drawing of interrelation of nervous cages that causes subsequently the person from the sociocultural point of view.
Having decided that process of socialization is interconnected with the sociocultural environment, it is necessary to pay attention to some delusions which are present at life of almost each person namely to stereotypes.
The concept «stereotype» was introduced in the 20th years of last century in the USA by the scientist and the founder of the concept of stereotypic thinking and behavior U. Lippman for the first time. It defined stereotypes as «the pictures of the world ordered and determined by culture in the head of the person which save his efforts at perception of difficult social objects and protect its values, positions, the rights». (1)
In turn, T. Shibotani defines the studied definition as «the popular concept designating approximate group of people, from the point of view of some easily distinguishable sign, supported by widespread representations concerning properties of these people». (5)
Intermediate conclusion allows to realize that the stereotype is acquired early enough, without understanding of belonging to any culture, the state, religion. From this it follows that the opposition conflict on the basis of different views (stereotypes), is difficult operated and long-term.
Modern representatives of the western thought: Yoshihisa Kashima, Klaus Fiedler, Peter Freytag, Todd D. Nelson, David J. Schneider, Craig McGarty, Vincent Y. Yzerbyt, Russell Spears, V. Irena, V. Veronika, Z. Radka, V. Petr, V. Renata and other, meet in understanding of a stereotype as forms of irrational knowledge and certification (assessment) of individuals or the whole groups. Stereotyping is the considerable subjective and negative phenomenon in the field of social perception and knowledge. (6-12)
This point of view is identical to a position of the American psychologist and the sociologist Kimball Jung who in the 50th years of last century expressed opinion that the stereotype acts as a synonym of wrong assessment and bias.
So, on the one hand, social stereotypes or behavioural templates, allow to simplify behavior of the person and to save time, but on the other hand, they standardize, make people similar and predictable, so manipulated.
The following judgments act as examples of widespread stereotypes:
I. Children have to meet expectations of parents;
II. All teenagers rather difficult and very strange;
III. In old age all have to be ill and grumble, executing functions of the nurse on a call;
IV. The one who has a lot of money and works at a high position is happy;
You are allocated to V.Зачем from society;
VI. The thing is more expensive, the it is more qualitative, I will be more successful in it;
Formation of stereotypic beliefs is based on the following levels:
I. Macro level (state. Ideology, media, customs of the country, religion etc.);
II. Meso level (colleagues, personal beliefs, subscriptions in social nets, chats);
III. Micro level (family or close people);
The author pays attention that formation of stereotypic thinking is caused by the following mechanisms:
the person draws conclusions by results of any one impression of incident: in total Gotha — Satanists;
It is caused at the person by polar thinking: it is good/is bad, beautiful/is ugly, successful/unsuccessful, etc.
III. Wrong perception
prejudiced selectivity or rejection of alternative sources or points of view.
Consequences of such behavior models at the person are:
The underestimated self-assessment + uncertainty in; extreme forms of pessimism/maximalism; depressions; fanaticism, reasoning, the overestimated ideals and offense etc.
Dear reader, you do not hurry to think of «habitual» categories, call in question all you face. You can consciously leave a habitual zone of comfort on means of education, increase in level of knowledge in various areas. Try to understand that
«the thinking not that in us already is, and what we only still can think up, is search of not existing answers, it is puzzlement before something else new». (2)
Some sources which were used by the author:
1. Kohn I. S. Prejudice psychology (about social and psychological roots, ethnic prejudices.
2. Kurpatov A. Red tablet. (Hl. No. 4. P. 211)
3. Nevzorov A. G. Origin of the personality and intelligence of the person.
4. Satanovsky E. Ya. Book of Israel. (heads No. 2 No. 6. No. 7.)
5. Shibutani T. Social psychology.
6. Kashima Y. Fiedler K. Freytag P. Stereotype Dynamics: Language-Based Approaches to the Formation, Maintenance, and Transformation of Stereotypes.
7. McGarty K. Vincent Y. Yzerbyt R. S. Stereotypes as Explanations: The Formation of Meaningful Beliefs about Social Groups.
8. Nelson T. D. Prejudice, Stereotyping, and Discrimination.
9. Schneider J. D. The Psychology of Stereotyping.
10. Vaňková I. Vodrážková V. Zbořilová R. Horizonty kognitivn -kulturní lingvistiky.
11. Vojtěch B. Odli š nost a stereotypy v pozdním středověku.
12. Weinerová R. Romové a stereotypy.[/vc_column_text][/vc_column][/vc_row]